Persian(Farsi) Language

Farsi, also called Persian language, is a member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. It is the official language of Iran, and two varieties of Persian(Farsi) known as Dari and Tajik are official languages in Afghanistan and Tajikistan, respectively. Iranian languages are spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and parts of Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and scattered areas of the Caucasus Mountains. Approximately 110 million people speak in Farsi.

The Indo-Iranian language branch is a branch consisting of agglutinative languages; this branch comprises several languages, as the majority of the world population are speakers of these languages, and Persian (Farsi) language shares plenty of words with them.

Most well-known language throughout the world are currently using tens of originally Persian(Farsi) words; some notable examples include: Bāzār (in English: Bazaar), Kārvān (in English: Caravan), Kimiā (in English: Alchemy), Shimi (in English: Chemistry), Al-col (in English: Alcohol), Data, Bānk or Bonakdāri (in English: Bank), Darvish (in English: Dervish), Bolbol, shāl, Shekar (in English: Sugar), Javān, Yāsamin (in English: Yasmin), Esfenāj (in English: Spinach), Shāh, Zirāx, Limoo (in English: Lemon), Babr (in English: Tiger), Kelid (in English: Key), Ord or farmān (in English: Order), Setāre (in English: Star), Cyrus, Dariush, Jasmine, Gāv (in English: Cow), Toofān (in English:Tyfoon), Mādar (in English: Mother), pedar (in English: Father), Khūb, Bad, God, nām, Kām, Gām, Leng (in English: Leg), Lab (in English: Lip), Abroo (In English: eyebrow), Tou (in English: Thou), Man (in English: Me), Badan (in English: Body), Dokhtar (in English: Daughter).

Persian(Farsi) language has not only borrowed some words from the adjacent countries' languages, but also lent several words to the languages of neighboring countries; the significant effect of Persian language on the languages spoken in Indian subcontinent is evident.

Persian(Farsi) is the international language of mystics. Many Arab, Turkish, and Indian mystics have written their books in Persian. The literature of Indo-Iranian school of mysticism which originated from Iran and spread throughout Western Asia and even North Africa, is mostly in Persian, and Persian has always been the language of mysticism in Indian subcontinent and even among the Turkish tribes.

European languages, including English, are using originally Persian words in abundance, such as better (behtar in Persian), Good, (Khūb in Persian), Brother (Barādar in Persian), bad, best, paradise, star, navy, cash, check, divan, mummy, me, tab, orange, magic, rose, etc.

The number of these words amounts to 700; the reason for this frequency is the Sanskrit language, considered the mother language of all new Indo-European languages.

Even religious scriptures contain some Persian(Farsi) words, e.g.: Pardis (Ferdows) in bible, Torah, and Quran. Numerous places located in Middle East and North Africa have Persian names, such as Baghdad (in Persian: Baqdād, بغداد), Al-Anbār (in Persian: الانبار), Oman (in Persian: Houmān, هومان), Rostaq (in Persian: Rostāq, رُستاق),), Ceyhan (in Persian: Jeyhān, جیهان), Basra (equivalent to Persian "Pas-Rāh" which means "backway"), Rafidain (in Persian: Rāfedin, رافدین), Hindu Kush (in Persian: Hendū-Kosh, هندوکُش), Heyderabad (in Persian: Heydarābād, حیدرآباد), Shabuhragan (in Persian: Shabarqān, شبرقان), Tenge, etc. We can find the trace of more than 200 Persian words in languages such as Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Uyghur, and Turkmen, which have enetered these languages from beyond Amu Darya during the centuries.

The identified words in the Indonesian language with a Persian(Farsi) origin amount to at least 350 words. Khosh ("very good" in English), soda, Bāzargāni (Commerce), Kār (work), Kadū (Pumpkin), Nān (Bread), Kharid va Forūsh (Trade) and conjunctions like (with), az (from) are some of the frequently-used words in Indonesian language which are originally Persian(Farsi).

In 1836, Charles Terry Villian replaced Persian, India's official language for seven centuries, with English.

The epitaph of Jahanara Begum's (Jahan Shah's daughter) tomb reads:

No ornament adorns my tomb but grass,

As it suffices the tombs of the lonely.

The gravestone of Jahangir and Nourjahan in Taj Mahal, India, is inscribed with a verse from Nur Jahan's poem:

On the lonely's tomb, neither a flower is placed nor a lamp is hanging,

Neither a sign of a burning love, nor a nightingale's singing.

Farsi language


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